Wheat Farming in Kenya

wheat farming in Kenya
A wheat farm in Kenya

Wheat farming in Kenya is an important agricultural activity, primarily conducted in the high-altitude
regions of the country. The main wheat-producing areas are in the Central, Rift Valley, and Western
regions. The Kenyan government has been promoting the cultivation of wheat to help increase food
security and reduce dependence on imports. wheat farming in Kenya has the potential to increase with
the implementation of appropriate policies and investment in infrastructure and research.

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Factors to consider when starting wheat farming in Kenya

There are several factors to consider when starting a wheat farm in Kenya:


Wheat is typically grown in high-altitude regions with cool temperatures and adequate rainfall. It is
important to choose a location that meets these requirements and has access to water for irrigation.


The soil in the chosen location should be fertile, well-drained, and have a pH between 6 and 7.5. A soil test should be conducted to ensure that the soil is suitable for growing wheat.


Wheat is a cool-season crop that requires a temperate climate with cool temperatures and adequate
rainfall. The ideal planting time is from November to December and harvest time is around April to May.


High-quality seed is crucial for a successful wheat crop. It is important to choose seeds from a reputable supplier that is certified and free from disease.


An adequate water supply is essential for wheat farming. Therefore, irrigation systems should be installed to ensure that the crop receives the necessary water during dry periods.


It is important to conduct market research to understand the demand for wheat in the area and to
identify potential buyers for the crop.


Starting a wheat farm requires a significant investment in land, equipment, and inputs. It is important to secure funding from banks or other financial institutions to support the venture.

8.Technical assistance

Wheat farming requires knowledge of agronomic practices, pests and diseases management, and
financial and market management. It is important to seek technical assistance from agricultural
extension services or professional agronomists.

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Preferable climate for planting wheat in Kenya

Kenya is situated in the Eastern part of Africa and has a diverse climate, with different regions suitable
for growing different types of crops. Wheat, being a cereal crop, is best grown in regions with a cool and
moist climate, with adequate rainfall and moderate temperatures. Therefore, the ideal climate for planting wheat in Kenya is characterized by the following:

  • Rainfall

Wheat requires adequate rainfall throughout the growing season. Therefore, most of the precipitation is required during the planting and early growth stages. In Kenya, the best regions for growing wheat are those that receive between 600 to 800mm of rainfall per year. March-May are the long rains while short rains are received from October-December.

  • Temperature

Additionally, Wheat prefers a cool and moderate climate, with temperatures between 10 to 20°C during the growing season. However, high temperatures during the flowering stage can lead to reduced yields and low-quality grain.

  • Altitude

Wheat is best grown at an altitude between 1,500 to 2,500 meters above sea level, in regions with
moderate temperatures and adequate rainfall.

  • Soil

Wheat can be grown on a wide range of soils but it prefers well-drained, deep, and fertile soils that are
rich in organic matter.

  • Sunshine

Wheat needs sunshine during the growing period, but not too much. Too much sun can cause heat stress
and lead to reduced yields.

Regions with these characteristics in Kenya include the highlands of Central, Western, and Eastern
provinces, the slopes of Mount Kenya and Aberdare Ranges, and the Rift Valley provinces. However,
with the changing climate, farmers need to consider the weather forecast and climate change
predictions when planning their wheat crop.

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Types of wheat grown in Kenya

1.Bread wheat

Bread wheat is a type of wheat that is commonly grown in Kenya and is known for its high protein content, it is
used to make bread and other baked goods.

2.Durum wheat

This type of wheat is grown in semi-arid regions of Kenya, it is known for its high protein content and
hard texture, and it is typically used to make pasta and semolina flour.


It is also a type of cereal that is grown in Kenya. It is used to make malt for brewing beer and also used
as animal feed.


Rye is a type of wheat that is grown in Kenya. It is known for its tolerance to cold temperatures and
drought, and it is used to make bread, cereal, and as animal feed.


It is a hybrid of wheat and rye, and it is known for its high yield potential, disease-resistance dance, and
tolerance to abiotic stresses.

6. Spelt

Spelt is a type of wheat that is considered to be an ancient grain. It is known for its high protein content
and nutty flavor. It is used to make bread, pasta, and other baked goods.

The choice of the wheat variety depends on the specific growing conditions and desired end use,
farmers in Kenya select the variety that is suitable to the local weather conditions and soil types. Also,
farmers tend to select varieties that are more resistant to pests and diseases that are prevalent in the

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