Wheat farming is the cultivation of wheat. Wheat a cereal grain that is one of the most widely grown and
important crops in the world. Wheat is a staple food for millions of people around the globe, and it is used to make flour for bread, pasta, pastries, and other baked goods.
Read also: How to prepare a smocha at home
Steps involved in wheat farming.
1. Preparing the soil
Wheat farmers typically till and prepare the soil before planting. This may involve using equipment such as plows and harrows to break up the soil, remove weeds, and create a smooth seedbed.
2. Planting the seed
Wheat is usually planted in the fall, using a drill or broadcast seeder. The seed is placed in the soil at a
specific depth and spacing, depending on the variety of wheat being grown.
3. Fertilizing and irrigating
Wheat farmers may use fertilizers to add nutrients to the soil, and irrigation systems to provide water to
the crop during dry periods.
4. Controlling pests and diseases
Farmers may use pesticides and other methods to control pests and diseases that can damage the crop.
Wheat is typically harvested in the summer, using combine harvesters that cut, thresh, and clean the
6. Marketing and storage
After harvesting, the wheat is typically stored in silos or other storage facilities until it is ready to be
transported to mills or other customers.
Wheat farming can be done on large scale or small scale, with different types of equipment and techniques, depending on the size of the farm and the specific needs of the crop. With proper
management, a wheat farm can be a profitable and sustainable enterprise.
Read also: How to cook pizza at home
Challenges facing wheat farming
Wheat farming, like any agricultural enterprise, faces a variety of challenges. Some of the most
significant challenges facing wheat farmers include:
Wheat farmers are heavily impacted by weather conditions, such as drought, flooding, and extreme
temperatures. These conditions can damage crops, reduce yields, and increase the risk of pests and
2.Pests and diseases
Wheat is susceptible to a variety of pests and diseases, including fungal diseases, insects, and rodents.
These can cause significant damage to crops, reducing yields and quality.
Continuous wheat farming in the same area without proper rotation and management can lead to soil
degradation, leading to low yields and reduced fertility.
4.Changing consumer preferences
Consumer preferences are changing, with many people choosing to eat more whole grains, organic food
and gluten-free products, which can make it more difficult for wheat farmers to sell their products.
The price of wheat can be affected by a variety of factors, including weather, supply and demand, and
global economic conditions. This can make it difficult for farmers to predict their income and plan for
Climate change is expected to bring more extreme weather patterns, droughts and floods, which can
have a severe impact on wheat production and farming infrastructure.
7. Pesticide resistance
Pests and pathogens are increasingly becoming resistant to pesticides, making it difficult to control
them. This can lead to crop loss and reduced yield.
8.Limited access to financing
Many small-scale farmers have limited access to financing, which can make it difficult for them to invest
in new equipment, expand their farms, or adopt new technologies.
Read also: Wheat Farming in Kenya
Process of planting wheat
The process of planting wheat in Kenya generally involves the following steps:
1. Preparing the soil
Before planting, farmers in Kenya will typically till the soil to remove any weeds and debris and create a
smooth seedbed. This can be done manually or with the use of equipment like plows and harrows.
2. Choosing the seed
Farmers will choose the seed variety that is best suited to the local growing conditions, taking into
consideration factors such as weather, soil type, and the intended use of the crop. The seed is usually
obtained from reputable seed companies or agricultural organizations.
3. Testing the soil
Soil testing is done to determine the pH, organic matter, and nutrient levels of the soil. This information
will help the farmers to decide on the right amount of fertilizer to use.
Additionally, farmers may use fertilizers to add nutrients to the soil, this is done before or after planting.
Wheat is usually planted in Kenya in the months of October to December, using a drill or broadcast
seeder. The seed is placed in the soil at a specific depth and spacing, depending on the variety of wheat
Wheat requires adequate water to germinate, farmers will ensure that the soil is moist throughout the
germination period and the seedlings are well established.
Weeding is an important step in the process, it helps to control the growth of weeds which compete
with the wheat for nutrients and water, this can be done manually or with the use of herbicides.
Wheat is typically harvested in Kenya in the months of April to June, using combine harvesters that cut,
thresh, and clean the grain.
9. Marketing and storage
Typically, after harvesting wheat is stored in silos or other storage facilities until it is ready to be transported to mills or other customers.