Hodgkin Lymphoma, Causes, Signs, Symptoms, Treatment

Hodgkin lymphoma
Swollen lymph nodes around the neck which is a sign of Hodgkin lymphoma

What is Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is a body system that help in strength of the immune system to fight diseases causing germs. The word lymphoma is derived from the white blood cells called lymphocytes. Therefore, when Hodgkin’s lymphoma attacks the immune system and weakens the white cells which leads to swollen lymph nodes and growths on the bod.

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Signs and symptoms of Hodgkin’s lymphoma

  1. Severe itching on the body
  2. Rapid loss of weight
  3. Swelling lymph nodes that are not painful in the armpits or on the neck
  4. Constant fatigue
  5. Night sweats

Types of Hodgkin lymphoma

Hodgkin’s lymphoma is classified into two categories which are:

  1. Classic Hodgkin’s lymphoma contains a small number of Reed-Sternberg cells surrounded by normal-looking immune cells and they include;
  2. Lymphocyte-rich classic Hodgkin’s lymphoma– it is normally diagnosed at an early stage and
    mostly affect men than in women.
  3. Mixed cellularity Hodgkin’s lymphoma– It tends to be most common in people with HIV and usually develops in the lymph nodes of the upper body.
  4. Lymphocyte-depleted Hodgkin’s lymphoma– it is very rare and mainly occur in old age, they are mostly found in the lymph nodes around the bone marrow, the belly, liver and spleen. However, it’s diagnosed during its advanced stage.
  5. Nodular sclerosis Hodgkin’s lymphoma– mainly occur in the lymph nodes around neck or chest

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Factors that may lead to the risk of Hodgkin Lymphoma

  1. Weak immune system
  2. Family history either the parents or the siblings.
  3. Age and the most affected are the old aged.
  4. The male are most likely to be affected by Hodgkin more than female.
  5. When one might been infected with Epstein-Barr virus.

Hodgkin Lymphoma Diagnosis

Various test will be carried out by a specialist and they include;

  1. X-rays, PET scans, or CT scans to assist the doctor to see inside your body and look for enlarged lymph nodes and help determine its stage and for accurate diagnosis.
  2. Lymph node biopsy which will involve removal of a piece of the node to test the presence of any abnormal cells.
  3. Blood test will be required which will include blood count, sedimentation rate test to measure the amount of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
  4. Immunophenotyping which will entail use of lab results to determine if the lymphoma cells are present or what type they are.
  5. Bone marrow biopsy which will involve examination of the bone marrow to see how far the Hodgkin lymphoma has spread.

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Hodgkin Lymphoma treatment

One should see a doctor when the signs listed above persist since according to World Health Organization Hodgkin lymphoma is possibly curable.

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