Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Medications

Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease

Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is a specific form of ischemic heart disease caused by the buildup of plaque inside the coronary arteries. It is the most common type of heart disease and a leading cause of heart attacks.

Causes of Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD)

Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of CAD, occurs when fatty deposits called plaques accumulate within the walls of the coronary arteries. The plaques consist of cholesterol, fat, calcium, cellular waste, and other substances. Over time, these deposits can harden and narrow the arteries, reducing blood flow to the heart muscle.

Risk Factors Associated with Atherosclerotic CAD

Several risk factors contribute to the development of atherosclerotic CAD. These include:

High blood pressure

Elevated blood pressure can damage the inner lining of the arteries, promoting the formation of plaques.

High cholesterol levels

High levels of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, often referred to as “bad” cholesterol, can lead to the buildup of plaques.


Cigarette smoking damages the blood vessels, accelerates the development of plaques, and increases the risk of blood clots.


Individuals with diabetes have an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis.


Excess body weight, particularly around the waist, is associated with an elevated risk of CAD.

Family history

Having close relatives with CAD or a history of heart attacks increases the likelihood of developing the condition.

Age and gender

The risk of CAD increases with age, and men tend to be at a higher risk compared to premenopausal women.

Symptoms of Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease

  • The symptoms of atherosclerotic CAD can vary and may include:
  • Angina
  • Chest pain or discomfort is typically described as a squeezing, pressure, heaviness, or tightness sensation. It often occurs during physical exertion or emotional stress and subsides with rest.
  • Shortness of breath
  • Difficulty breathing, especially during exertion.
  • Fatigue
  • Unusual tiredness or lack of energy, particularly with physical activity.
  • Heart palpitations
  • The sensation of irregular or rapid heartbeats.
  • Indigestion or heartburn-like symptoms
  • Discomfort in the upper abdomen, is often mistaken for gastrointestinal issues.
  • Nausea
  • Feeling sick to the stomach or experiencing an upset stomach.

Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease Diagnosis

To diagnose atherosclerotic CAD, healthcare professionals may perform the following tests:

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

Records the electrical activity of the heart to identify any abnormal rhythms or signs of a previous heart attack.

Stress tests

Assess heart function during physical exertion, such as treadmill exercise or medication-induced stress, to detect signs of reduced blood flow to the heart.

Cardiac imaging

Techniques like echocardiography, cardiac CT scan, or cardiac MRI provide detailed images of the heart’s structure and function to evaluate blood flow and detect any blockages.

Coronary angiography

This invasive procedure involves injecting a contrast dye into the coronary arteries and using X-ray imaging to visualize any blockages or narrowing.

Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease Treatment

The treatment of atherosclerotic CAD aims to reduce symptoms, improve blood flow, and prevent complications. Treatment options may include:

1.0 Lifestyle modifications

Adopting a heart-healthy diet, regular exercise, smoking cessation, stress management, and weight management.

2.0 Medications

Medications may be prescribed to control blood pressure, lower cholesterol levels, prevent blood clots, relieve symptoms, and manage underlying conditions.

3.0 Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

This minimally invasive procedure, commonly known as angioplasty, involves widening the narrowed coronary arteries using a balloon catheter and may include the placement of a stent to keep the artery open.

4.0 Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)

In cases of severe or widespread blockages, open-heart surgery may be performed to bypass the blocked arteries by grafting blood vessels from other parts of the body.

5.0 Cardiac rehabilitation

Rehabilitation programs provide structured exercise, education, and support to help individuals recover, make lifestyle changes, and reduce the risk of future cardiac events.

It’s important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and to discuss the most appropriate treatment options based on individual circumstances. Early detection and management of atherosclerotic CAD can significantly improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.